Today’s Burning Question: Does HIPAA allow first responders to be notified of critical information such as the addresses of positive covid-19 patients?
Answer: HIPAA Hysteria… I do not know why HIPAA gets blamed for being a boogey-man that stands in the way of needed progress or used a convenient excuse not to do things folks do not want to do, but we all know it does. But as often is the case, HIPAA does not prohibit fire and EMS personnel from conveying necessary information to each other.
Over the past few weeks, I have been asked this very question over twenty times – and I am sure I am not the only attorney facing this onslaught. Fortunately, earlier this week the Office for Civil Rights at the U.S Department of Health and Human Services released a comprehensive guidance document to address these very concerns. Here are some of the highlights that apply to us to help us address this burning question:
- Yes, the HIPAA Privacy Rule permits a covered entity to disclose the protected health information (PHI) of an individual who has been infected with, or exposed to, COVID-19, with law enforcement, paramedics, other first responders, and public health authorities1 without the individual’s HIPAA authorization, in certain circumstances, including the following:
- A covered entity may disclose PHI to a first responder who may have been exposed to COVID-19, or may otherwise be at risk of contracting or spreading COVID-19, if the covered entity is authorized by law, such as state law, to notify persons as necessary in the conduct of a public health intervention or investigation. For example, HIPAA permits a covered county health department, in accordance with a state law, to disclose PHI to a police officer or other person who may come into contact with a person who tested positive for COVID-19, for purposes of preventing or controlling the spread of COVID-19.
- A covered entity may disclose PHI to prevent or lessen a serious and imminent threat to a person or the public, when such disclosure is made to someone they believe can prevent or lessen the threat, which may include the target of the threat. For example, HIPAA permits a covered entity, consistent with applicable law and standards of ethical conduct, to disclose PHI about individuals who have tested positive for COVID-19 to fire department personnel, child welfare workers, mental health crisis services personnel, or others charged with protecting the health or safety of the public if the covered entity believes in good faith that the disclosure of the information is necessary to prevent or minimize the threat of imminent exposure to such personnel in the discharge of their duties.
- A covered entity, such as a hospital, may provide a list of the names and addresses of all individuals it knows to have tested positive, or received treatment, for COVID-19 to an EMS dispatch for use on a per-call basis. The EMS dispatch (even if it is a covered entity) would be allowed to use information on the list to inform EMS personnel who are responding to any particular emergency call so that they can take extra precautions or use personal protective equipment (PPE).
- A 911 call center may ask screening questions of all callers, for example, their temperature, or whether they have a cough or difficulty breathing, to identify potential cases of COVID-19. To the extent that the call center may be a HIPAA covered entity, the call center is permitted to inform a police officer being dispatched to the scene of the name, address, and screening results of the persons who may be encountered so that the officer can take extra precautions or use PPE to lessen the officer’s risk of exposure to COVID-19, even if the subject of the dispatch is for a non-medical situation. Under this example, a 911 call center that is a covered entity should only disclose the minimum amount of information that the officer needs to take appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of exposure. Depending on the circumstances, the minimum necessary PHI may include, for example, an individual’s name and the result of the screening.
Here is a copy of the guidance document: